All Graduate School Entrants, especially those enrolled in the Master’s Degree Program, who have already finished their Baccalaureate Degrees
This three-unit course acquaints students with professional ethics entailed in the moral issues that arise because of the specialist knowledge that professionals attain, and how the use of this knowledge should be governed when providing a service to the public, and carried additional moral responsibilities to those held by the population in general. It also acquaints students with codes of conduct, codes of practice as well as ethical codes or principles in every conceivable aspect; whereby, it deals ethically and intrinsically with standards that a professional/worker should observe in performance of his/her duties and responsibilities whether in public or private practice of his/her profession or work. The course further deals with the legal aspects of education and such other laws promulgated to strengthen adherence to the ethical norms of work and the sanctions imposed for violations of the standards set by law.
4.1.2. acquaint with the ethical norms and, at the same time, sustain interest in the codes of ethics observed by workers/professionals which regulate the profession (e.g., teacher, accountant, lawyer, engineer, doctor, computer programmer, nurse, medical technologist), and how conflict of interest will arise and preventive measures to avoid them;
4.1.3. examine critically and form sound judgment of the ethical principles and practices which geared towards in-depth studies of legal foundations of education in order to relate to modern mode of thinking;
4.1.4. know the rules and regulations, legal aspects or bases of Philippine education, and other pertinent laws promulgated by Congress and such other administrative bodies to maintain the ethical standards in the practice of profession in the private and public service/duties, and the corresponding sanctions or penalties for the violations; and
4.1.5. further get acquainted and connected oneself through application with all the laws and regulations covering different levels of education and such laws promulgated to establish ethical standards in the performance of work/profession.
4.2.2. participate actively in the legal aspects and utilize other legal bases wisely and effectively of Philippine educational system considering, particularly, every aspect of provisions in the 1987 Constitution relating to Education, Science, Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports (ESTACS) as the basis of other laws governing education;
4.2.3. describe and compare with other Republic Acts pertaining to education about the provisions of BP 232, the Act providing for the establishment and maintenance of an Integrated System of Education, otherwise known as the Educational Act of 1982 which defines the rights and obligations of parents, students, teachers, administrators, non-academic staff, as well as the school in general and such other laws and regulations promulgated by legislature related to education; and
4.2.4. specify unambiguously the significance and impetus of the provisions of Magna Carta of Teachers (basic rights and responsibilities of a teacher) and liken said provisions with that of the Educational Act of 1982.
5.2. General knowledge of the three foundations of education and research capability.
6.2.2. Generally, learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes. These are the criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed, and tests or examinations are prepared.
6.2.2. The study guide consists of the main body of each lesson module that teaches the skills and concepts in order for the students to be successful learners as far as the subject is concerned.
6.2.3. The learning activity gives the students a complete practice in what they have learned from the Study Guide. Thus, the activity of worksheets or projects needs to be answered or accomplished.
6.2.3. The lesson requirements are established for the sole purpose of ensuring the welfare of students as a guide during the process of learning, and these protocols are obligatory to advance for modular lessons in successive but limited period of time.
6.2.4. This lesson assessment/evaluation focuses on ensuring that students have arrived at their intended destination. It will need to gather some evidence that they did. This usually is done by gathering students' work and assessing this work using some kind of grading component that is based on lesson objectives. It could also replicate some of the activities practiced as part of the lesson, without providing the same level of guidance during the lesson. It could always quiz students on various lesson module concepts and problems as well.
This preliminary action/overview will help you understand the nature of professional obligations and the tensions that arise among professional groups. The section in particular explores the ethical dilemmas that arise from working within multi-professional teams. In response to the new ethical and regulatory environment, many professional bodies have produced revised codes of ethics. These new codes are generally based on principles, as opposed to rules. What this means in practice is that professionals are expected to apply certain principles when determining how they should act, as opposed to simply following a set of rules. However, applying the principles to complex professional dilemmas requires the development of a set of ethical competences. Key competences include:
- An understanding of when ethical dilemmas pertaining to professional work arise in the first instance.
- An appreciation of the bases that make the principles worth pursuing. Why, for example, should a pharmacist, “encourage patients to participate in decisions about their health?’’ or a teacher “use the computers at school or work to earn extra money?" or a professor “ask his student for a date?”
- An understanding of the different ways in which a principle can be translated into an action. For example, when exercising professional judgment, how do you determine what the interests of the public are, in contrast to the interests of patients, students or other clients?
- And finally, it requires the ability to resolve a situation where principles are in conflict.
II. Lesson Objectives:
III. Study Guide/Main Body of the Lesson:
B. Theory Input
Results show that professional ethics, despite being one of the main areas in the national curriculum for both forms of teacher education, is an educational area associated with relatively modest expectations on behalf of the students. The same holds true for assessment of outcomes.The analyses of structures of expectancies and assessment of outcomes highlight three dimensions relevant to professional ethics: the individual/collegial dimension, the cognitive/emotional dimension, and the student/profession oriented dimension. In the expectancy structure of early education students, ethical deliberation seems to be not only a cognitive matter but also a private one as it is connected to critical reflection and evaluation of own work. The emotional dimension is added in the assessment of outcomes structure, as ethical deliberation becomes connected to empathy and tolerance.
Further, teachers expect to learn more within the ethics area by graduation end up in a cluster characterized by high assessment of outcomes within PLANNING, LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY, indicating a professional orientation towards the individual responsibility of an educational leader of a team of care givers in the typical early education context. In contrast, the ethical position of education students starts out as encompassing both cognitive and emotional dimensions as well as communicative, maybe collegial discursive, ones. However, as reflected in the assessment of outcomes structure, the latter is lost at graduation. Graduate school professors and students initially high on expectations within the professional ethics area tend to end up with high assessment of outcomes within the very same area.Education in the professions is commonly thought of as teaching theory later to be applied in professional action. Surprisingly the items on different kinds of knowledge in the beginning of studies are conceptualized as one distinct factor, isolated from the other items reflecting diverse curriculum components. In the end of studies aspects of knowledge are distributed across several other components.
Not so ethics, with the possible exception of knowledge about rules and regulations in the early education teachers sample. The analyses performed do identify ethics as one of the distinct components both in the beginning of studies and at the end for the early childhood education student sample, and at least at the end for the teacher education sample. At the end of studies it is in both samples comprised of ethical deliberation, tolerance and valuing different points of view. Accepting responsibility and making decisions comes in addition for graduate school students.
According to Chris MacDonald in his considerations for writing a code of ethics, most major corporations, and many smaller companies, now have Codes of Ethics, along with a range of other issue-specific ethics documents. Such a document embodies the ethical commitments of one’s organization; it tells the world who the person is, what he/she stands for, and what to expect when conducting business with him/her. The content of a Code, and the process for writing it, can vary quite a lot, but there are some of the standard issues to consider. There are questions surrounding the validity of professional codes of ethics. On a practical level it is very difficult for those independent of the profession to monitor practice, leaving the possibility that a code of practice may be self serving. This is because the nature of professions is that they have almost a complete monopoly on a particular area of knowledge.
Rita Adolfo is an attorney who is representing a man in a divorce action. Her client has just called her and said (referring to his wife's lawyer) "I ought to just go over there and shoot that lousy low-life." She does not believe her client is likely to do any such thing but is concerned about her professional responsibilities.
(A) She must disclose what her client said to her opposing counsel because her client has threatened to cause death or serious bodily harm; even though she does not believe harm is likely.
(B) She may not disclose the client's statement because she does not believe that the client is likely to carry out the threat.
(C) She may disclose the client's threat anonymously to the police.
(D) She has discretion to disclose her client's threat to her opposing counsel to prevent death or serious bodily harm; even though she does not believe harm is likely.
Joseph Navarro is an attorney who, until recently, was employed by McMillen & Elkin. Joseph now is interviewing for a job with Johnston & Barone, another local law firm. Johnston & Barone would like to hire Joseph, but they are concerned because Johnston & Barone's biggest case is against a client represented by McMillen & Elkin, and Joseph worked for McMillen & Elkin while that case was ongoing (although Joseph had nothing to do with the case and knows nothing about it or the client).
Michael Rosales is a new attorney who has opened his own law office. A competent but aging client has asked Michael to draft an irrevocable trust that will provide for her during her lifetime but will place her financial affairs in the control of her son, as trustee. Michael has never done any such thing.
- Definitions and Distinctions
- Theory Input